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Figure 5.1:  Polydactyly is an example of a human trait that can be studied by pedigree analysis

The basic concepts of genetics described in the preceding chapters can be applied to almost any eukaryotic organism.  However, some techniques, such as test crosses, can only be performed with model organisms or other species that can be experimentally manipulated. To study the inheritance patterns of genes in humans and other species  for which controlled matings are not possible, geneticists use techniques including the analysis of pedigrees and populations.